The application of AGV in automated ports is constantly expanding.
Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands
The quay crane at the ECT Delta Sealand terminal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands uses a single trolley arrangement, and the horizontal transportation of containers uses Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) and runs along a fixed circular route. There is a high-speed unmanned rail crane in each stacking area of the yard. The stacking yard has 6 rows of boxes and 4 layers. The AGV loading and unloading point is located in the door frame of the quay crane. The AGV does not enter the yard. Its loading and unloading point is located at the end of the yard and perpendicular to the berth. The AGV speed is 3m/s and is driven by internal combustion engine hydraulic pressure. If the yard bridge fails, the loading and unloading operations of the same box stack at the yard will be seriously affected. Since the AGV travels on a fixed route, the route is long and inflexible, which will cause congestion and occupy a large area at the front of the yard. Therefore, ECT built Delta Dedicated (DDE) in 1997 on the basis of summing up the Delta Sealan automated terminal construction and use experience. Automated container terminal, Dedicated Wes (DDW) automated container terminal was built in 2000.
The Euromax terminal of Rotterdam Port in the Netherlands, which was put into operation in 2008, represents the third-generation automated container terminal. Its berthing equipment is a dual trolley quay crane. The AGV speed is 6m/s. It is driven by a diesel generator and operates on the rear extension of the quay crane. area. The yard area adopts the fully automatic rail-mounted gantry container crane ARMG, which can stack 5 over 6, span 10 containers. Compared with the second generation, the track cranes in each storage area of the storage yard are arranged in a relay-type symmetrical manner, and the theoretical loading and unloading efficiency of the quay crane is 40 (standard containers)/h. Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industry Group is a supplier of quay crane equipment for Euromax terminal. Euromax terminal uses the Dynacore navigation software of Germany Dematic to navigate and control the AGV, and uses the information automation software of Navis of the United States to manage the terminal. Each container area in the yard is equipped with one AGV channel. In the case of crossing each other, the AGV can not only go straight, but also turn and circle, and it can also carry out loading and unloading operations between the door legs of the rail-mounted gantry crane.
Port of Hamburg, Germany
The CTA container terminal in the Port of Hamburg, Germany was built in 1999, and the first phase of the project was completed and put into operation in 2002. The coastline of the CTA terminal is about 1,400m long, with 4 berths and a storage capacity of 30,000 TEU (20-foot standard containers); the front of the terminal is equipped with 14 ultra-Panamax quay cranes, which can quickly load and unload large container ships; there are 6 railway operation areas The 700m long parallel loading and unloading lane is equipped with 4 rail-mounted gantry cranes spanning six lanes for loading and unloading operations.
The characteristic of the CTA container terminal is that the quay crane has a double-trolley structure, and the horizontal transportation adopts AGV (in the extension area of the quay crane), which runs on a flexible route; the two rail cranes in each stack area of the yard are arranged through The field consists of 10 rows of boxes and 4 layers. The route planning and design of the terminal and equipment scheduling adopt computer simulation technology. AGV uses different frequency radar to navigate. Compared with fixed route operation, its efficiency is higher, but the scheduling is more complicated. AGV was initially driven by internal combustion engine hydraulic pressure, and later by diesel generator-powered electric drive. In 2009, it was gradually upgraded to power battery-powered electric drive to reduce emissions. Two rail cranes are redundantly configured. When one of them fails, the impact on the operation is small, but the investment cost is increased. Because trucks need to enter the stack area for operation, positioning is difficult, and the AGV runs on an unfixed route, so the control is more complicated.
Nagoya Pier, Japan
The Tobishima Container Terminal at the Port of Nagoya, Japan is Japan’s first fully automated container terminal and is currently recognized as one of the most advanced automated container terminals in the world. The terminal has 2 berths, which were put into operation in December 2005 and December 2008, respectively. As Japan is a country with many earthquakes, the structure and equipment of its container terminals adopt enhanced seismic design techniques to reduce earthquake damage.
Tobishima container terminal adopts quay crane (single trolley)-AGV-ARTG handling process. A total of 6 super-Panamax quay cranes are equipped at the front of the terminal. The fully automatic tire-type gantry container crane (ARTG) used in the yard area stacks 4 over 5 types of containers with 6 rows of lower spans. Horizontal transportation adopts AGV. The AGV is parked within the span of the quay crane or under the rear girder and transfers the container. ARTG will load and unload the container when it runs to the yard according to the instructions. The yard layout is parallel to the shoreline of the wharf. Tobishima Container Terminal is currently the only automated container terminal in the world that uses AR TG as its yard equipment. Compared with general tire-type gantry cranes, ARTG has the advantages of high accuracy, alignment, good stability, and high degree of automation. It also has functions such as automatic correction, photoelectric control, and hydraulic cylinder anti-sway. In addition, the terminal adopts optical character recognition (OCR) technology and radio frequency identification (FRID) technology of the intelligent crossing system, combined with various facilities such as electronic information signs, gateway systems, and crossing self-service terminal systems, which can realize the collection of truck numbers and containers. Automatic collection of box numbers.
Port of Long Beach, USA-Long Beach Container Terminal (LBCT)
The Port of Long Beach is located in Long Beach, California, USA. It is one of the busiest seaports in the world and a major port for American trans-Pacific trade. The port covers an area of 3,200 acres, has 31 miles of coast, 10 docks, 62 berths and 68 Panamax gantry cranes.
The Long Beach Container Terminal is one of the busiest terminals on the West Coast of the United States, with a total investment of approximately US$1.2 billion. It is a brand-new modern fully automated terminal built by combining two old terminals and the first fully automated terminal in North America.
Long Beach Container Terminal has 3 berths: E24, E25 and E26, operated by OOCL. The first phase of the terminal was commissioned in April 2016. On May 3, 2016, Zhenhua Heavy Industries held a handover ceremony for the automated terminal (LBCT) equipment in Long Beach, USA. This handover marked the first fully automated container terminal in North America Smoothly put into commercial operation.
The Long Beach Container Terminal adopts the "bridge crane + automatic guided vehicle + automatic rail crane" operation technology, and its horizontal transportation method is battery-driven and lifted AGV. The yard is arranged perpendicular to the shoreline of the wharf, and there is an exchange area for automatic guided vehicles and automatic stacking cranes on the sea side. This type of terminal layout effectively isolates the ship-yard operation and the yard-collection operation. The automated guided vehicle is responsible for container transportation between the seaside of the yard and the dock, and between the railway loading and unloading line and the yard. The operation is fully automated. It is understood that a total of 72 AGVs are used at the Long Beach Container Terminal.